Safety Testing Regulation Standards on Industrial Chemicals

Today, the chemical trade has dramatically increased due to demands of the different chemicals. It is one of the largest and most diverse markets, with different corporations producing chemicals to consumers and other industries. Companies such as BASF, Dow Chemical, Sinopec, and many more are just one of the chemical traders in the business. But, this business requires extra precaution due to the potential risk posed by hazardous chemicals. The lack of adequate infrastructure, guidelines, and safety can make them vulnerable.

The OCED Guidelines is an international standard used for safety testing and assessment of chemicals from industrial chemicals to personal body care products. They are regularly updated with the help of experts of OECD members from all over the world. These Guidelines are divided to 5 sections.

Section 1, would include the physical and chemical properties where different tests are conducted.

  1. Determination of pH, acidity, and alkalinity
  2. Density of liquids and solids
  3. Viscosity of Liquids
  4. Partition coefficient (slow-stirring method)
  5. Vapour pressure
  6. Hydrolysis as function of pH
  7. HPLC method
  8. Estimation of Adsorption coefficient
  9. Adsorption- desorption using Batch equilibrium method

Section 2, would include the effects on Biotic Systems and some the tests that are conducted

  1. Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
  2. Lymnaea stagnalis Reproduction Test
  3. Enchytraeid Reproduction Test
  4. Earthworm Reproduction Test (Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei)
  5. Avian Acute Oral Toxicity Test
  6. Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil
  7. Determination of Developmental Toxicity to Dipteran Dung Flies(Scathophaga stercoraria L. (Scathophagidae), Musca autumnalis De Geer (Muscidae))
  8. Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil
  9. Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
  10. The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA)
  11. Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil

Section 3, would include the degradation and Accumulation and some of the tests conducted

  1. Ready Biodegradability – CO2 in sealed vessels (Headspace Test)
  2. Bioaccumulation in Fish: Aqueous and Dietary Exposure
  3. Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes
  4. Inherent Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (II)
  5. Simulation Tests to Assess the Biodegradability of Chemicals Discharged in Wastewater
  6. Bioaccumulation in Sediment-dwelling Benthic Oligochaetes
  7. Phototransformation of Chemicals in Water – Direct Photolysis
  8. Estimation of Emissions from Preservative – Treated Wood to the Environment
  9. Ready Biodegradability – CO2 in sealed vessels (Headspace Test)
  10. Anaerobic Biodegradability of Organic Compounds in Digested Sludge: by Measurement of Gas Production

Section 4, includes the Health effects and some of the tests conducted

  1. Performance-Based Test Guideline for Stably Transfected Transactivation In Vitro Assays to Detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists
  2. In Vitro Skin Sensitisation
  3. Stably Transfected Human Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay for Detection of Androgenic Agonist and Antagonist Activity of Chemicals
  4. Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test
  5. Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test
  6. In vitro skin corrosion: reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) test method
  7. In Vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Aberration Test
  8. Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test
  9. Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test
  10. In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests using the Hprt and xprt genes

Section 5 would include, other tests conducted

  1. Introduction to OECD Test Guidelines on Pesticide Residues Chemistry – Section 5 Part A
  2. Crop Field Trial
  3. Magnitude of the Pesticide Residues in Processed Commodities
  4. Stability of Pesticide Residues in Stored Commodities
  5. Nature of the Pesticide Residues in Processed Commodities – High Temperature Hydrolysis
  6. Residues in Rotational Crops (Limited Field Studies)
  7. Introduction to Other Test Guidelines
  8. Metabolism in Crops
  9. Metabolism in Rotational Crops
  10. Metabolism in Livestock

OECD Test Guidelines are required for different types of chemicals depending on the legislation and whether they provide relevant results for the intended regulatory purpose. These guidelines are important in handling different chemicals and can prevent hazardous events. Also, it can enhance the validity and international acceptance of test data; make the best use of available resources in both governments and industry; avoid the unnecessary use of laboratory animals and minimize non-tariff trade barriers.

About the author

Jan has an intimate knowledge of strategic planning and operations management he acquired in the German military and in academia. Having graduated from Peking University, he possesses an acute knowledge of the Chinese economy. Jan routinely consults on short and medium term company strategy and is currently working on the company’s 3 year plan.
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